Pharmaceutical Breakdown in Compost

The International Compost Sanitation Forum and Message Board: Humanure Composting Research: Pharmaceutical Breakdown in Compost
Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 1:46 pm
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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Volume 28, Issue 12, pages 2546–2554, December 2009

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1897/08-657.1/full

Sara C. Monteiro1 and Alistair B. A. Boxal

Abstract

Pharmaceuticals may be released to the soil environment through the application of biosolids to land. To understand those factors affecting the persistence of pharmaceuticals in the soil environment, the present study was performed to assess the effects of soil type, the presence of biosolids, and the impact of chemical mixture interactions on the degradation of three pharmaceuticals: naproxen, carbamazepine, and fluoxetine. Single-compound studies showed that naproxen degraded in a range of soils with half-lives ranging from 3.1 to 6.9 d and in biosolids with a half-life of 10.2 d. No relationships were observed between degradation rate and soil physicochemical properties and soil bioactivity. For naproxen, addition of biosolids to soils reduced the degradation rate observed in the soil-only studies, with half-lives in the soil-biosolid systems ranging from 3.9 to 15.1 d. Carbamazepine and fluoxetine were found to be persistent in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid mixtures. When degradation was assessed using a mixture of the three study compounds and the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethazine, the degradation behavior of fluoxetine and carbamazepine was similar to that observed in the single compound studies (i.e., no degradation). However, the degradation rate of naproxen in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid systems spiked with the mixture was significantly slower than in the single-compound studies. As degradation studies for risk assessment purposes are performed using single substances in soil-only studies, it is possible that current risk assessment procedures will underestimate environmental impacts. Further work is therefore warranted on a larger range of substances, soils, biosolid types, and chemical mixtures to better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in terrestrial systems.

Conclusions: It is inevitable that pharmaceuticals will be released to the soil environment. An understanding of those chemical and environmental factors affecting the fate of pharmaceuticals in the soil environment would therefore be highly beneficial in order to characterize the environmental risks of pharmaceuticals. This study therefore investigated the effects of a range of variables on the persistence of some commonly used pharmaceuticals. Studies with single substances in different soil types indicated that degradation rates are variable but it is not yet possible to correlate persistence with soil properties or soil bioactivity. Pharmaceuticals will enter the environment associated with biosolids and our data indicate that the presence of biosolids significantly reduces degradation rates compared to soil alone. Our results also contrast with other studies about the effects of biosolids, demonstrating that the effect of biosolids will probably be highly dependent on the source and nature of the biosolids used. As pharmaceuticals will never be in the environment as single compounds, a consideration of the impacts of mixtures of different pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals and other compounds needs to be assessed. Our preliminary data demonstrate that degradation may be significantly slower in mixtures compared. The use of single-substance laboratory soil degradation studies, which are currently used in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals, may result in either over- or underestimates of persistence and hence environmental risk. Overall the data demonstrate that degradation of pharmaceuticals in the environment is a very complex issue and a lot more data on the degradation behavior of pharmaceuticals in a range of well-characterized soils with different properties are needed in order to understand what will happen to a pharmaceutical in the real soil environment.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 1:31 pm
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http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1472-765X.2001.00992.x/full

T.F. Guerin

Article first published online: 7 JUL 2008

Letters in Applied Microbiology, Volume 33, Issue 4, pages 256–263, October 2001

Aims: Soils at a commercial facility had become contaminated with the pharmaceutical chemical residues, Probenecid and Methaqualone, and required remediation.

Methods and Results: Soil composting was investigated as an alternative to incineration for treatment. In laboratory trials, a factorial experimental design was used to evaluate organic matter amendment type and concentration, and incubation temperature. In pilot scale trials, Probenecid was reduced from 5100 mg kg–1 to < 10 mg kg–1 within 20 weeks in mesophilic treatments. An 8 tonne pilot scale treatment confirmed that thermophilic composting was effective under field conditions. In the full-scale treatment, 180 tonnes of soil were composted. Initial concentrations of the major contaminants in the full-scale compost treatment were 1160 mg kg–1 and 210 mg kg–1, for Probenecid and Methaqualone, respectively. Probenecid concentration reached the target level of 100 mg kg–1 in 6 weeks, and removal of Methaqualone to < 100 mg kg–1 was achieved after 14 weeks.

Conclusions: Co-composting was effective in reducing soil concentrations of Probenecid and Methaqualone residues to acceptable values.

Significance and Impact of the Study: Co-composting is a technology that has application in the remediation of pharmaceutical contaminants in soil.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 1:21 pm
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Bioremediation of PAHs-contaminated soil through composting: Influence of bioaugmentation and biostimulation on contaminant biodegradation

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964830511001326

Tahseen Sayara, Eduard Borràs, Gloria Caminal, Montserrat Sarrà, Antoni Sánchez

International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, Volume 65, Issue 6, September 2011, Pages 859–865

Abstract

The degradation of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil through composting was investigated. The selected PAHs included: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, and chrysene, with concentrations simulating a real creosote sample. The degradation of PAHs (initial concentration 1 g of total PAHs kg−1 dry soil) was assessed applying bioaugmentation with the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and biostimulation using compost of the source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and rabbit food as organic co-substrates. The process performance during 30 days of incubation was evaluated through different analyses including: dynamic respiration index (DRI), cumulative oxygen consumption during 5 days (AT5), enzymatic activity, and fungal biomass. These analyses demonstrated that the introduced T. versicolor did not significantly enhance the degradation of PAHs. However, biostimulation was able to improve the PAHs degradation: 89% of the total PAHs were degraded by the end of the composting period (30 days) compared to the only 29.5% that was achieved by the soil indigenous microorganisms without any co-substrate (control, not amended). Indeed, the results showed that stable compost from the OFMSW has a greater potential to enhance the degradation of PAHs compared to non-stable co-substrates such as rabbit food.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 1:13 pm
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Drugs in the water

http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletters/Harvard_Health_Letter/2011/June/drugs-in-the-water



Harvard Health Letter, June 2011


A study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1999 and 2000 found measurable amounts of one or more medications in 80% of the water samples drawn from a network of 139 streams in 30 states. The drugs identified included a witches' brew of antibiotics, antidepressants, blood thinners, heart medications (ACE inhibitors, calcium-channel blockers, digoxin), hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone), and painkillers. Scores of studies have been done since. Other drugs that have been found include caffeine (which, of course, comes from many other sources besides medications); carbamazepine, an antiseizure drug; fibrates, which improve cholesterol levels; and some fragrance chemicals (galaxolide and tonalide).

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 1:01 pm
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Pharmaceutical residues in urine and potential risks related to usage as fertiliser in agriculture

http://doku.b.tu-harburg.de/volltexte/2009/557/pdf/PhD_Thesis_Winker.pdf



Martina Winker aus Stuttgart 2009

"...it is recommended not to use urine of people under medication for fertilisation of food crops."

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 12:53 pm
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Adsorption and biodegradation of antidiabetic pharmaceuticals in soils

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653513012411



Wojciech Mrozik, Justyna Stefańska

Abstract

Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants in the natural environment. Most studies of the environmental fate of these chemicals focus on their behavior in wastewater treatment processes and in sewage sludge. Little is known about their behavior in soils. In this study adsorption and biodegradation of four antidiabetic pharmaceuticals – glimepiride, glibenclamide, gliclazide and metformin – were examined in three natural soils. The sorption of sulfonylurea derivatives was high (higher than sulfonylurea herbicides for example), whereas metformin showed high mobility. Desorption rates were highest for metformin. Sorption isotherms in two of three soils fitted best to the Freundlich model. Despite their high affinity to for soil surfaces, biodegradation studies revealed that transformation of the drugs occurred. Biodegradation results were described by pseudo-first order kinetics with half-life values from 5 to over 120 d (under aerobic conditions) and indicate that none of the tested drugs can be classified as quickly biodegradable. Biodegradation under anoxic conditions was much slower; often degrading by less than 50% during time of the experiment.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 12:41 pm
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Factors affecting the degradation of amoxicillin in composting toilet

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653506012938

Factors affecting the degradation of amoxicillin in composting toilet

Takashi Kakimoto, Naoyuki Funamizu

Abstract

The biological and non-biological factors that affect the degradation of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces have been investigated. The effect of living bacteria and the enzyme (beta-lactamase) on amoxicillin decay was examined, and our results indicated that the biological effects are likely to be negligible. Consequently, the effect of phosphate, ammonia and pH level as non-biological factors was investigated by monitoring the reduction rate of amoxicillin in phosphate and ammonia buffer solutions with several pH levels. Each reduction rate constant was integrated by a simulation model, and the each calculated amoxicillin reduction profile was compared to the reduction profiles of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces. The calculated results corresponded almost exactly to the experimental profiles. We therefore concluded that the degradation of amoxicillin in a toilet matrix was dependent on the concentration of ammonia, phosphate and hydroxyl ion.

CONCLUSIONS
In this study, we investigated the factors affecting the decline of amoxicillin in the composting toilet from the view point of both their biological and non-biological aspects. Our results indicated that amoxicillin was reduced mainly by non-biological factors (phosphate ammonia and pH level in the toilet matrix). The simulation model developed in this study is capable of describing the experimental amoxicillin reduction profiles in sawdust matrix, and since the concentrations of non-biological factors in the toilet matrix increased according to the duration of operation in the demonstration plant, it will be easier to treat amoxicillin if the composting toilet matrix operates on human excrement over a long period of time.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 12:37 pm
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Ciprofloxacin Residues in Municipal Biosolid Compost Do Not Selectively Enrich Populations of Resistant Bacteria}

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25261519

Caitlin P. Youngquista*, Jinxin Liub, Lisa H. Orfeb, Stephen S. Jonesa and Douglas R. Callb


ABSTRACT

Biosolids and livestock manure are valuable high-carbon soil amendments, but they commonly contain antibiotic residues that might persist after land application. While composting reduces the concentration of extractable antibiotics in these materials, if the starting concentration is sufficiently high then remaining residues could impact microbial communities in the compost and soil to which these materials are applied. To examine this issue, ciprofloxacin was added to biosolid compost feedstock to achieve a total concentration of 19 ppm, approximately 5-fold higher than that normally detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (1 to 3.5 ppm). This feedstock was placed into mesh bags that were buried in aerated compost bays. Once a week, a set of bags was removed and analyzed (treated and untreated, three replicates of each; 4 weeks). Addition of ciprofloxacin had no effect on the recovery of resistant bacteria at any time point (P = 0.86), and a separate bioassay showed that aqueous extractions from materials with an estimated 59 ppm ciprofloxacin had no effect on the growth of a susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (P = 0.28). Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. While analytical methods detected biologically significant concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the materials tested here, the culture-based methods were consistent with the materials having sufficient adsorptive capacity to prevent typical concentrations of ciprofloxacin residues from selectively enriching populations of resistant bacteria.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 12:32 pm
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Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/264976080_Degradation_of_morphine_in_opium_poppy_processing_waste_composting



Yin Quan Wanga, Jin Lin Zhangb, Frank Schuchardtc, Yan Wanga

Abstract

To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9–17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5–22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 12:27 pm
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Occurrence of estrogen hormones in biosolids, animal manure and mushroom compost.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21472385


Andaluri G1, Suri RP, Kumar K.

Abstract

The presence of natural estrogen hormones as trace concentrations in the environment has been reported by many researchers and is of growing concern due to its possible adverse effects on the ecosystem. In this study, municipal biosolids, poultry manure (PM) and cow manure (CM), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) were analyzed for the presence of seven estrogen hormones. 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-dihydroequilin, and estrone were detected in the sampled biosolids and manures at concentrations ranging from 6 to 462 ng/g of dry solids. 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estrone were also detected in SMC at concentrations ranging from 4 to 28 ng/g of dry solids. Desorption experiments were simulated in the laboratory using deionized water (milli-Q), and the aqueous phase was examined for the presence of estrogen hormones to determine their desorption potential. Very low desorption of 0.4% and 0.2% estrogen hormones was observed from municipal biosolids and SMC, respectively. An estimate of total estrogen contribution from different solid waste sources is reported. Animal manures (PM and CM) contribute to a significant load of estrogen hormones in the natural environment.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 12:24 pm
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Decrease in Water-Soluble 17β-Estradiol and Testosterone in Composted Poultry Manure with Time

http://www.soils.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/34/3/0943

Heldur Hakk *a,
Patricia Millnerb and
Gerald Larsena

Abstract

Little attention has been paid to the environmental fate of the hormones 17β-estradiol and testosterone excreted in animal waste. Land application of manure has a considerable potential to affect the environment with these endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Composting is known to decompose organic matter to a stable, humus-like material. The goal of the present study was to quantitatively assess levels of water-soluble 17β-estradiol and testosterone in composting chicken manure with time. Chicken layer manure was mixed with hay, straw, decomposed leaves, and starter compost, adjusted to approximately 60% moisture, and placed into a windrow. A clay-amended windrow was also prepared. Windrows were turned weekly, and temperature, oxygen, and CO2 in the composting mass were monitored for either 133 or 139 d. Commercial enzyme immunoassay kits were used to quantitate the levels of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in aqueous sample extracts. Water-soluble quantities of both hormones diminished during composting. The decrease in 17β-estradiol followed first-order kinetics, with a rate constant k = −0.010/d. Testosterone levels declined at a slightly higher rate than 17β-estradiol (i.e., k = −0.015/d). Both hormones could still be measured in aqueous extracts of compost sampled at the conclusion of composting. The decline in water-soluble 17β-estradiol and testosterone in extracts of clay-amended compost was not statistically different from normal compost. These data suggest that composting may be an environmentally friendly technology suitable for reducing, but not eliminating, the concentrations of these endocrine disrupting hormones at concentrated animal operation facilities.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 12:14 pm
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Uptake of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products by Soybean Plants from Soils Applied with Biosolids and Irrigated with Contaminated Water

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es1011115,


Chenxi Wu *†, Alison L. Spongberg †, Jason D. Witter †, Min Fang † and Kevin P. Czajkowski ‡
Department of Environmental Sciences, and Department of Geography and Planning, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606

"Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are commonly found in biosolids and effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Land application of these biosolids and the reclamation of treated wastewater can transfer those PPCPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, giving rise to potential accumulation in plants. In this work, a greenhouse experiment was used to study the uptake of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and fluoxetine) and two personal care products (triclosan and triclocarban) by an agriculturally important species, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Two treatments simulating biosolids application and wastewater irrigation were investigated. After growing for 60 and 110 days, plant tissues and soils were analyzed for target compounds. Carbamazepine, triclosan, and triclocarban were found to be concentrated in root tissues and translocated into above ground parts including beans, whereas accumulation and translocation for diphenhydramine and fluoxetine was limited. The uptake of selected compounds differed by treatment, with biosolids application resulting in higher plant concentrations, likely due to higher loading. However, compounds introduced by irrigation appeared to be more available for uptake and translocation. Degradation is the main mechanism for the dissipation of selected compounds in biosolids applied soils, and the presence of soybean plants had no significant effect on sorption. Data from two different harvests suggest that the uptake from soil to root and translocation from root to leaf may be rate limited for triclosan and triclocarban and metabolism may occur within the plant for carbamazepine."

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 12:05 pm
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Fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides in sewage sludge compost and their uptake from soil into food plants

http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380887524_Haiba%20et%20al.pdf



Egge Haiba1, Merike Lillenberg2, Karin Kipper3, Alar Astover4, Koit Herodes3, Mari Ivask1,
Annely Kuu1, Sandra Victoria Litvin1 and Lembit Nei1*

"Sewage sludge compost can be a source of nutrients for plants and contamination by pharmaceutical products. In this study the presence of some widely used pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge and its compost – namely ciprofloxacin C17H18FN3O3, ofloxacin C18H20FN3O4, norfloxacin C16H18FN3O3, sulfadimethoxine C12H14N4O4S and sulfamethoxazole C10H11N3O3S – was shown. In several sewage sludge samples their concentrations exceeded the relevant trigger values for manure. The highest concentrations of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin in the compost ready for commercialization sufficiently exceeded the threshold concentration – 1 μg/kg – for pharmaceuticals in soil. The values of the highest detected concentrations of these pharmaceuticals in compost were respectively 70, 64 and\8 μg/kg. The uptake of these pharmaceuticals was demonstrated from both sandy and loamy soils into food plants such as carrot (Daucus carota L), potato (Solanum tuberosum L) and wheat (Triticum vulgare L)."

Conclusions
FQs and SAs were present in sewage sludge and its
compost both in Tallinn and in Tartu and in several
samples their concentrations exceeded the relevant
trigger values for manure. Degradation of these
pharmaceuticals took place as a result of composting.
The concentrations of the studied antimicrobials
decreased remarkably as a result of composting. Still, in
6 month stored compost the content of NOR was over
and the content of CIP was near the recommended
trigger value for soil. The decomposition rate of
pharmaceuticals depends on the applied sludge
treatment technology. The decomposition of
pharmaceuticals was faster in the case of Tallinn
composting technology.
The uptake of pharmaceuticals by the studied food
plants was present. Wheat grains had low or zero
concentrations of the analysed pharmaceuticals. This
shows the potential applicability of sewage sludge
compost for fertization of the crops of this type. The
uptake of FQs and especially SAs by plants like potato
and carrot might present health risk. Due to this the
application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer for these
crops may take place only after careful testing against
possible different toxic pollutants. The safest way to
exclude exposing plants to pharmaceuticals is to ensure
that these substances are adequately degraded before
sewage sludge compost is applied onto arable land.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 11:56 am
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Uptake of pharmaceuticals, hormones and parabens into vegetables grown in soil fertilized with municipal biosolids

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22687432



Sabourin L1, Duenk P, Bonte-Gelok S, Payne M, Lapen DR, Topp E.

"Abstract

Several recent greenhouse studies have established the potential for uptake of human pharmaceuticals from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids into a variety of crops. In the present study, a field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the uptake of organic micropollutants from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids at a regulated application rate into tomatoes, carrots, potatoes and sweet corn produced under normal farming conditions. The vegetables were grown according to farming practices mandated by the province of Ontario Canada, the key feature being a one-year offset between biosolid application and the harvest of crops for human consumption. Biosolids at application, and crop samples following harvest were analyzed for 118 pharmaceuticals and transformation products, 17 hormones or hormone transformation products, and 6 parabens. Analyte concentrations in the biosolids were consistent with those detected in other surveys. Eight of the 141 analytes were detected in one or two crop replicates at concentrations ranging from 0.33 to 6.25 ng/g dry weight, but no analytes were consistently detected above the detection limit in all triplicate treated plots. Overall, this study suggests that the potential for micropollutant uptake into crops under normal farming conditions is low."

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 11:52 am
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Plant Uptake of some Pharmaceuticals Commonly Present in Sewage Sludge
Compost

http://outside.vermont.gov/agency/ANR/ResidualsManagement/Shared%20Documents/Kipper%20et%20al.%202010%20%20Plant%20uptake%20of%20pharms%20in%20sludge.pdf

Lembit Nei*, Egge Haiba and Sandra V Litvin
Tartu College
Department of Environmental Protection
Tallinn University of Technology
Puiestee 78, 51008 Tartu, Estonia

"Although all the studied pharmaceuticals were present in Tallinn and Tartu sewage sludge, raw sludge is
not used for fertilizing soils. In Tartu sewage sludge is treated by composting – mixing with tree bark
(volume ratio 2:3). The methane fermentation and mixing with peat (volume ratio 4:3) are used in Tallinn.
As a result the levels of the residues of pharmaceuticals are subsequently diminishing."

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 11:44 am
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Presence of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides in urban sewage sludge and their degradation as a result of composting

http://biblioteca.universia.net/html_bura/ficha/params/title/presence-of-fluoroquinolones-and-sulfonamides-in-urban-sewage-sludge-and/id/54890007.html



1M. Lillenberg; 2S. Yurchenko; 2K. Kipper; 2K. Herodes; 2V. Pihl; 3R. Lõhmus; 4M. Ivask; 4A. Kuu; 4S. Kutti; 4S. V. Litvin; 4*L. Nei

CONCLUSION
This study showed that the concentrations of the studied fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin) and sulfonamides (sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole) -sufficiently varied both in sewage sludge and in compost. The concentrations of pharmaceutical residues in compost were significantly lower, if compared to the relevant concentrations in sewage sludge. The degradation of pharmaceutical residues was more efficient in Tallinn probably due to anaerobical sludge digestion (compost was made by mixing the treated sewage sludge with peat), if compared to the results obtained in Tartu (raw sewage sludge was mixed with tree bark). It is concluded that before using the sewage sludge compost as a fertilizer it should be carefully tested against the content of different pharmaceuticals. The content of pharmaceuticals in the compost made from sewage sludge may easily lead to the elevated concentrations in food plants, if the compost is used as a fertilizer. This work shows that studies of the sewage sludge used for making compost and the development of novel sewage sludge treatment technologies are needed with the aim of solving environmental problems related to sewage sludge exploitation.

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 11:41 am
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Compost and Pharmaceuticals

http://www.rootsimple.com/2013/05/compost-and-pharmaceuticals/



We get this question a lot–will pharmaceuticals end up in my compost if I use human urine or animal manure? This is really three questions:

Does composting break down pharmaceuticals?
Are some pharmaceuticals worse than others in terms of their ability to survive the composting process?
If pharmaceuticals persist after composting do edible plants uptake them in sufficient quantities to effect humans?

Author: Joe (Joe)
Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 11:38 am
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The effect of composting on the degradation of a veterinary pharmaceutical

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852409014965



Jayashree Ramaswamy,
Shiv O. Prasher, ,
Ramanbhai M. Patel,
Syed A. Hussain,
Suzelle F. Barrington

Abstract

Composting has been identified as a viable means of reducing the environmental impact of antibiotics in manure. The focus of the present study is the potential use of composting on the degradation of salinomycin in manure prior to its field application. Manure contaminated with salinomycin was collected from a poultry farm and adjusted to a C:N ratio of 25:1 with hay material. The manure was composted in three identical 120 L plastic containers, 0.95 m height × 0.40 m in diameter. The degradation potential for salinomycin was also ascertained under open heap conditions for comparison (control). Salinomycin was quantified on HPLC with a Charged Aerosol Detector, at an interval of every 3 days. The salinomycin level in the compost treatment decreased from 22 mg kg−1 to 2 × 10−5 μg kg−1 over 38 days. The corresponding decrease in the control was from 27.5 mg kg−1 to 24 μg kg−1. The changes in pH, EC (dS m−1), temperature, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total potassium (TK), total phosphorus (TP) and carbon content in both the composting and the control samples were monitored and found to be different in compost as compared to the control. During the composting process, the loss of TKN was 36%, which was substantially lower than corresponding loss of 60% in the control. The loss of carbon was 10% during composting, whereas the loss in the control was 2%. In composting, the temperature modulated from 27 °C (initially) to a high of 62.8 °C (after 4 days), and then declined to 27.8 °C at the end of 38 days. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it appears that the composting technique is effective in reducing salinomycin in manure.

Author: Powderflask (Powderflask)
Saturday, April 20, 2013 - 10:49 pm
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One of the members of our household just started Chemotherapy treatments. I know chemo drugs are some of the nastiest pharmaceuticals made - designed specifically to kill cells.

I found this article that raises serious alarms about general lackadaisical handling of these toxic chemicals as patients excrete them.


http://www.ecori.org/public-safety/2012/11/19/chemo-drugs-pose-serious-public-health-risks.html

We have been humanure composting for many years - our finished compost goes on fruit trees. I'm very concerned about introducing active, potentially dangerous pharmaceuticals into my orchard - does anyone know how persistent chemo drugs are and/or if/how they are decomposed during composting?

Author: Olivier_c (Olivier_c)
Thursday, July 19, 2012 - 12:19 pm
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Hello,

I am Olivier Chaput, from Belgium. We will be starting soon some large scale compost project with humanure.

I am really intersted - to get autorisation from public health - about antibiotics and hormona... Here it is some of what I found. If you have more or different please do share.

http://www.exposantd.be/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/AspectSanitaire.pdf

Author: Joe Jenkins (Joe)
Wednesday, March 18, 2009 - 3:57 pm
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Composting Rapidly Reduces Levels of Extractable Oxytetracycline in Manure from Therapeutically Treated Beef Calves

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=185994



Here's a study using Oxytetracychne (OTC) - a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in livestock production. The OTC did not affect the composting process and within the first six days of composting, showed a 95% reduction.

"Within the first six days of composting, levels of extractable OTC in the compost mixture decreased from 115 'g/g dry weight to less than 6 'g/g dry weight (a 95% reduction). In contrast, levels of extractable OTC in room temperature incubated and sterilized mixtures decreased only 12 - 25 % after 37 and 35 days, respectively. Levels of total bacteria and OTC-resistant bacteria in the finished compost mixture were roughly 30-fold higher and 10-fold lower, respectively, than levels in the mixture prior to composting. Although the basis of the OTC disappearance during composting is not known, the preponderance of OTC-sensitive bacteria and the decrease of OTC-resistant bacteria in the finished compost suggests that OTC residues have been rendered biologically inactive or unavailable. Farmers should be advised of the persistence of OTC in untreated manure and could compost manure (especially within the first week of treatment) to reduce OTC residues. Other research in our lab has shown that OTC residues in manure is not effectively reduced during anaerobic digestion and reduces biogas production."

Author: Joe Jenkins (Joe)
Wednesday, March 18, 2009 - 3:49 pm
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Antibiotic Uptake by Plants from Soil Fertilized with Animal Manure

Here's a study showing that antibiotics in manure can be taken up by plants when they are fertilized with animal manures containing the antibiotics. This is the use of raw manure, not compost:

http://www.prepacvpm.org/wordpress/resources/_Exam_Topics_2012/2_EnvironHealth-Toxicology/6_Waste/AnimalAgWasteManagement/Antibiotic_Uptake_Plants.pdf



K. Kumar,*, S. C. Gupta, S. K. Baidoo, Y. Chandera and C. J. Rosena

Here's the link: https://www.prepacvpm.org/wordpress/resources/_Exam_Topics_2012/2_EnvironHealth-Toxicology/6_Waste/AnimalAgWasteManagement/Antibiotic_Uptake_Plants.pdf

Received for publication January 24, 2005. Antibiotics are commonly added to animal feed as supplements to promote growth of food animals. However, absorption of antibiotics in the animal gut is not complete and as a result substantial amounts of antibiotics are excreted in urine and feces that end up in manure. Manure is used worldwide not only as a source of plant nutrients but also as a source of organic matter to improve soil quality especially in organic and sustainable agriculture. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine whether or not plants grown in manure-applied soil absorb antibiotics present in manure. The test crops were corn (Zea mays L.), green onion (Allium cepa L.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group). All three crops absorbed chlortetracycline but not tylosin. The concentrations of chlortetracycline in plant tissues were small (2–17 ng g–1 fresh weight), but these concentrations increased with increasing amount of antibiotics present in the manure. This study points out the potential human health risks associated with consumption of fresh vegetables grown in soil amended with antibiotic laden manures. The risks may be higher for people who are allergic to antibiotics and there is also the possibility of enhanced antimicrobial resistance as a result of human consumption of these vegetables.

Author: Joe Jenkins (Joe)
Wednesday, March 18, 2009 - 3:29 pm
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Antibiotic Degradation during Manure Composting by Holly Dolliver University of Wisconsin–River Falls Satish Gupta* and Sally Noll University of Minnesota

http://www.moag.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/5F918C98-83F7-4CB0-85A2-AF200E091BC1/0/AntibioticdegradationduringmanurecompostingJEnvQual2008.pdf





Conclusions
Results from this study show that some level of manure management (mixing to optimum water content and then stockpiling) before land application can reduce levels of certain antibiotics. In this study, 35 d of thermophilic temperatures resulted in >99% reduction in chlortetracycline, whereas monensin
and tylosin reduction ranged from 54 to 76%. Th ere was no degradation of sulfamethazine in this study. The average half-lives for chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin were 1, 17, and 19 d, respectively. Despite signifi cant diff erences in temperature, mass losses, and nutrient losses between the control, managed
composting, and vessel composting treatments, there was no difference among the treatments on antibiotic degradation at the end of the trial period (22–35 d). Although this study was not designed to evaluate degradation mechanisms, there is strong evidence that biotic and abiotic factors contributed to antibiotic degradation during composting. More research is needed to determine the degradation of different antibiotic compounds in other manure types and management systems.

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